Abstract

Studies have shown that exposure of animals to a high ambient temperature environment poses serious threats to their health, performance and productivity. Above a certain threshold an animal's body temperature (Tb) appears to be driven by the hot ambient temperature (Ta). For steers challenged by heat stress, the Tb-Ta relationship shows a dramatic increase in Tb per unit change of Ta and the dynamics of the Tb-Ta relationship follow a pattern which depends on whether Ta is increasing or decreasing. A delay becomes noticeable in a steer’s thermo-regulatory response to Ta when Ta is controlled to be sinusoidal in the steer’s heat stress chamber. In other words, Tb lags behind Ta. Consequently when plotted in a Tb-Ta phase diagram, a hysteresis effect appears in the form of a hysteresis loop, indicating the steer is thermally challenged. The hysteresis loop shows a rotated elliptical pattern which depends on the delay (or lag) between Tb and Ta. The angle of rotation of the hysteresis loop indicates the correlation (and lag) between Tb and Ta. The area of the elliptical hysteresis loop can be used to quantify the amount of heat stress during the period of thermal challenge. For example, results of a thermal challenge of 32±7oC applied to a Hereford steer showed, the delay is longer (4 hr lag) and ellipse is larger in an acute stage than in a chronic stage (3 hr lag). A greater delay (or lag) suggests more time is needed to dissipate the heat stress. This result suggests, steers in an acute stage require more energy to dissipate heat than steers in a chronic stage.

Keywords

Delay-relay model, Ta-Tb phase diagrams, Thermo-regulatory response, Threshold, Sinusoidal input, Limit cyclic, Thermal ellipse, Hysteresis loop, Tb-Ta lags, Acute stage, Chronic stage, Energy dissipation, Ambient-body temperature correlation, Hereford steers

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Apr 25th, 9:45 AM

CHARACTERIZING THERMAL HYSTERESIS IN BODY TEMPERATURE FOR A HEAT STRESSED STEER

Studies have shown that exposure of animals to a high ambient temperature environment poses serious threats to their health, performance and productivity. Above a certain threshold an animal's body temperature (Tb) appears to be driven by the hot ambient temperature (Ta). For steers challenged by heat stress, the Tb-Ta relationship shows a dramatic increase in Tb per unit change of Ta and the dynamics of the Tb-Ta relationship follow a pattern which depends on whether Ta is increasing or decreasing. A delay becomes noticeable in a steer’s thermo-regulatory response to Ta when Ta is controlled to be sinusoidal in the steer’s heat stress chamber. In other words, Tb lags behind Ta. Consequently when plotted in a Tb-Ta phase diagram, a hysteresis effect appears in the form of a hysteresis loop, indicating the steer is thermally challenged. The hysteresis loop shows a rotated elliptical pattern which depends on the delay (or lag) between Tb and Ta. The angle of rotation of the hysteresis loop indicates the correlation (and lag) between Tb and Ta. The area of the elliptical hysteresis loop can be used to quantify the amount of heat stress during the period of thermal challenge. For example, results of a thermal challenge of 32±7oC applied to a Hereford steer showed, the delay is longer (4 hr lag) and ellipse is larger in an acute stage than in a chronic stage (3 hr lag). A greater delay (or lag) suggests more time is needed to dissipate the heat stress. This result suggests, steers in an acute stage require more energy to dissipate heat than steers in a chronic stage.