Virtual Reality, learning motivation, learning engagement, library instruction


The research on whether Virtual Reality (VR) has a positive effect on student learning and engagement is limited. This study aims to examine what impact VR has on student learning motivation and performance. The study conducted by Wang (2017) revealed that VR had a marginally positive impact on student scores and a strong impact on students’ learning engagement. It indicates that VR provides a small improvement in academic performance and a large improvement in student engagement. The application of VR in libraries focuses on providing the VR tools to learn subjects in STEM and history fields. For one-off instructional settings, the boost of learning motivation may increase interest in further investigation and retention. For semester-long courses, increased learning motivation may decrease student attrition or “failure” in the information literacy course.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.


Alhalabi, W. (2016). Virtual reality systems enhance students’ achievements in engineering education. Behaviour and Information Technology, 35(11), 919-925. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1212931

Arnhem, J., & Spiller, J.M. (2014). Augmented reality for discovery and instruction. Journal of Web Librarianship, 8(2), 214-230.

Barnes, S. (2017). Understanding virtual reality in marketing: Nature, implications and potential. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stuart_Barnes/publication/314949464_Understanding_Virtual_Reality_in_Marketing_Nature_Implications_and_Potential/links/59b81365aca2724161883b0a/Understanding-Virtuavl-Reality-in-Marketing-Nature-Implications-and-Potential.pdf

Chen, C., & Tsai, Y. (2012). Interactive augmented reality system for enhancing library instruction in elementary schools. Computers and Education, 59(2), 638-652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.001

Fowler, C. (2015). Virtual reality and learning: Where is the pedagogy? British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(2), 412-422. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12135

Lessick, S., & Kraft, M. (2017). Facing reality: the growth of virtual reality and health sciences libraries. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 105(4), 407-417. https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.329

Lund, B.D., & Agbaji, D.A. (2018). Augmented reality for browsing physical collections in academic libraries. Public Services Quarterly, 14(3), 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228959.2018.1487812

MacWhinnie, L. A. (2003). The information commons: the academic library of the future. Libraries and the Academy, 3(2), 241-257. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2003.0040

Maidenbaum, S., Levy-Tzedek, S., Chebat, D., & Amedi, A. (2013). Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the “EyeCane.” PlosOne. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072555

McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the intrinsic motivation inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60, 48-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413

More, C., Stromberga, Z., & Stirling, A. (2017). Virtualisation devices for student learning: Comparison between desktop-based and mobile-based virtual reality in medical and health science education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3840

Nichols, S., & Patel, H. (2002). Health and safety implications of virtual reality: A review of empirical evidence. Applied Ergonomics, 33(3), 251-271.

Oyelude, A. A. (2018). Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in libraries and museums. Library Hi Tech News, 35(5), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHTN-04-2018-0023

Portman, M.E., Natapov, A., & Fisher-Gewirtzman, D. (2015). To go where no man has gone before: Virtual reality in architecture, landscape architecture and environmental planning. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 376-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2015.05.001

Poulter, A. (1993). Towards a virtual reality library. ASLIB proceedings, 45(1), 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb051300

Smith, F.A. (2019), Information literacy instruction using virtual reality, In Varnum, K.J., Beyond reality: Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality in the library (pg. 87-98). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Swanson, K. (2007). Second Life: A science library presence in virtual reality. Science & Technology Libraries, 27(3), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1300/J122v27n03_06

The Library UC San Diego. (2018). A hub for innovation and learning: 3D technologies offered by UC San Diego Library. Retrieved from: https://library.ucsd.edu/news-events/a-hub-for-innovation-and-learning/

Tudor, A., Minocha, S., Collins, M., & Tilling, S. (2018). Mobile virtual reality for environmental education. Journal of Virtual Studies, 9(2), 25-36.

Varnum, K.J. (2019). Beyond reality: Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality in the library. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Waite, S. (2018). How Maryland libraries are using virtual and augmented reality (and how your library can too). Web Junction. Retrieved from: https://www.webjunction.org/news/webjunction/virtual-and-augmented-reality.html

Walsh, A. (2010). QR codes: Using mobile phones to deliver library instruction and help at the point of need. Journal of Information Literacy, 4(1), 55-65. https://doi.org/10.11645/4.1.1458

Wang, T. (2017). The effect of virtual reality on student learning motivation and academic performance (Unpublished Master’s thesis, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS, USA). Retrieved from https://esirc.emporia.edu/handle/123456789/3565

Wang, Y., Chen, C., Hong, C., & Tsai, Y. (2013). Interactive augmented reality game for enhancing library instruction in elementary schools (p. 391-396). In 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops. Tokyo, JP: IEEE.

Zahay, D., Kumar, A., & Trimble, C. (2017). Motivation and active learning to improve student performance. In Creating Marketing Magic and Innovative Future Marketing Trends (pp. 1259-1263). New York, NY: Springer.