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References

1. Klaus Wagenbach, "Nachwort", in: Eintritt frei. Beitrüge zur öffentlichen Meinung (Darmstadt und Neuwied: Hermann Luchterhand Verlag, 1982). 182-183.

2. Wagenbach. 184.

3. See for example: Wolfgang Paul. Prozeß gegen Leser, (Frankfurt/M.: Börscnvcrcin des Deutschen Buchhandels. 1961).

4. Jean Mortier. " E i n Buchmarkt mit neuen Strukturen. Zur Verlagspolitik und Buchplanung in der SBZ 1945-1949", in: Frühe DDR-Literatur. Traditionen. Institutionen, Tendenzen (Argument Sonderband 149) eds. Klaus R. Scherpe and Lutz Wincklcr (Hamburg/ Berlin: Argument Verlag, 1988). 62-80.

5. Jost Hermand, "'Der geteilte Himmel. E x i l l i t e r a t u r im Verlagsprogramm der vier Besatzungszonen (1945-1949)'" in: Frühe DDR-Literatur, 28-29.

6. The most visible shift in policy began with the election of the SPD/FDP coalition in 1969 and the articulation of Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. The.furthcr normalization of relations was institutionalized in four treaties between 1971 and 1972: "Viermächte-Abkommen über Berlin" (3.9.1971): "Transitvertrag" (17.12.1971); "Verkehrsvertrag" (26.5.1972); "Grundlagenvertrag" (21.12.1972).

7. Ralf Schnell. Die Literatur\ter Bundesrepublik (Stuttgart: J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1986), 168-251.

8. Mark W. Rectanus, Literary Series in the Federal Republic of Germany from I960 to 1980 (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1984), 9.

9. Rectanus, Literary Series, 15-17.

10. Frank Bcnseler, Hannelore May, and Hannes Schwenger, Literaturproduzenten.' (Berlin: Edition Voltaire. 1970).

11. Ursula Schaaf, "Engagement für Modernes aus der DDR", in: Das Börsenblatt für den deutschen Buchhandel (Frankfurter Ausgabe), 47/13.6.78, 1209. (Further citations abbreviated as Bbl.)

12. Klaus Wagenbach and Hans Altenhein, "Die Quadratur des Zirkels", in: BuchMarkt, 4/87, 82.

13. Wolfgang Emmerich, Kleine Literaturgeschichte der DDR ( E r w e i t e r t e A u s g a b e ) , ( F r a n k f u r t / M . : L u c h t e r h a nd Literaturverlag, 1989), 242-243.

14. Goeffrey V. Davis, '"Bloß kein Berufs-Dissident werden!': Zum Phänomen der DDR-Literatur in der Bundesrepublik", in: Deutsche Literatur in der Bundesrepublik seit 1965. cds. Paul Michael Lützeler and Egon Schwarz (Königstein/Ts.: Athenäum, 1980), 238-239; Rolf Becker, "Endlich die Wahrheit", in: Der Spiegel. 49/1981, 247; Emmerich, 335.

15. " T V - F i lm Collin nach Stefan Heym läßt bei Fischer TB und Bertelsmann die Kassen klingeln", in: Buchreport. 56/11.12.81, 21.

16. Emmerich, 446 (Sales figures are for the period up to 1988).

17. Elmar Faber, "Der Zöllner, der dem weisen die Weisheit abverlangt", in: Buchlournal. 1/89, 3.

18. Hans J. Schütz. "Literaturland DDR", in: Buchlournal, 1/89. 10-11.

19. Wolfram F Hanrieder, "German-American Relations in the Postwar Decades" in: America and the Germans, eds. Frank Trommler and Joseph McVeigh (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985)91-116; Jost Hermand, "From Naziism to NATOism: The West German Miracle According to Henry Luce", in: America and the Germans, 74-87.

20. Gilbert Badia, "Die Rezeption der DDR-Literatur in Frankreich 1949-1973", in: Frühe DDR-Literatur, 197.

21. Uta Kreuter, Übersetzung und Literaturkritik: Aspekte der Rezeption zeitgenössischer deutschsprachiger Literatur in Großbritannien I960 - 1980 (Frankfurt/M.: Verlag Peter Lang, 1985), 183-191.

22. Literature within the broader context of East-West relations was discussed by: Kay Boyle, " B i g Books on the Bonn Side", in: The Saturday Review, 30 May 1959. 21-22; R.C.Raack, "Novelist of Two Berlins", in: The Nation, 2 February 1962, 148-150; Bruce A. Cook, "Guilt and the Postwar German Novel", in: The Commonweal, 26 October 1962, 120-122; E.R. von Freiburg, "Half & Half Equals Two", in: The Nation, 17 April 1967.

23. Badia. 199.

24. For an extensive discussion of this topic with regard to the USA see: Mark W. Rectanus, German Literature in the United States: Licensing Translation in the International Marketplace (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1990).

25. See for example: Jurck Becker. Monika Maron, Hans Joachim Schädlich. Stefan Schütz, among others.

26. Statistical data on licensing was gathered on an annual basis starting in 1977 and reported in: Buch und Buchhandel in Zahlen (Frankfurt/M.: Buchhändler-Vereinigung GmbH).

27. See: Buch und Buchhandel in Zahlen (1977-1988). Statistical information on the approximate number of licences to the USA and Great Britain was provided by Horst Machill (Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels).

28. This information is based on interviews with publishers, agents and scouts in: Rectanus. German Literature in the United States (see above).

29. Buch und Buchhandel in Zahlen. (1977-1988).

30. According to Buch und Buchhandel in Zahlen, as much as 50c/c of all paperback fiction published in the FRG has been translations from other languages.

31. With regard to the second point: Economic reforms and changes in publishing policies altered the levels of literary production in the GDR. Volker Hage reports: "Aufruhr und Umbruch in den Verlagen. Deren Leiter und Lektoren sollen nun selbst entscheiden, welche Bücher sie verlegen, wie hoch die Auflage sein soll und der Preis. Und sie sollen sehen, wie sie an ausländische Lizenzen kommen, das heißt: an Devisen, denn ohne Devisen keine Lizenzen." See: Volker Hage, "Nach der Zensur", in: Die Zeit, 3/19.1.90, 13.

32. For a discussion of these factors in the USA see: Rectanus, German Literature in the United States.

33. Based on information provided by Helene Ritzerfcld, Rights Director for Suhrkamp/Insel Verlag.

34. Publishers Weekly reported a first printing of 150,000 copies (paperback) of Ende's The Neverending Story (published by Penguin). Süskind's Perfume was acquired for an estimated $100,000 by Alfred A. Knopf Publishers and received a 40,000 copy first printing (hardcover). All of these works had an established sales record as bestsellers, and the sales of The Neverending Story and The Boat profited from movie tie-ins. See: "Fiction Reprints", in: Publishers Weekly, 8 June 1984, 63; "The Phenomenon of Michael Ende", in: Publishers Weekly, 28 May 1982. 46. See also interviews with Roger Straus and Carol Janeway in: German Literature in the United States.

35. The works of Stefan Heym, which were originally published in English and were quite successful, would prove the exception to the rule.

36. Margy Gerber and Judith Pouget, Literature of the German Democratic Republic in English Translation. A Bibliography (Lanham: University Press of America, 1984). 4.
37. Gerber/Pouget, 9-121.

38. Gerber/Pouget, 5.

39. Gerber/Pouget. 5.

40. See interview with Roger Straus in: German Literature in the United States.

41. Carol Janeway, International Rights Director at Alfred A. Knopf is particularly concerned about the returns policies of the retail book chains. See: German Literature in the United States.

42. Jim Miller, "A Tale for Nuclear Times", in: Newsweek (International Edition), 22 May 1989.50.

43. See annual editions of Book Review Index and Book Review Digest.

44. Monika Maron, The Defector, (Readers International/Distributed by Consortium in the USA), 1988; Flight of Ashes ,1986. Christoph Hein, The Distant Lover, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1989).

45. Gerber/Pouget, 4.

46. Badia. 202.

47. Apart from the departure of Erich Honccker and the SED Party leadership from the government of the GDR, the opening of the Berlin Wall on November9, 1989 and the currency union on July 2, 1990 were among the most highly publicized events leading up to reunification on October 3, 1990.

48. "Günter Wallraff auf Lese- und Signierreisc in der DDR" in: Bbl., 24/24.3.87,986.

49. See annual editions of WerWasWo? im Taschenbuch. Gesamtverzeichnis aller Taschenbücher (Calw-Stammheim: Rossipaul Verlagsgesellschaft).

50. Michel-Francois Demet, "Rezeption der deutschen Literatur in Frankreich aufgrund einiger editorischer Erfahrungen: ein Überblick", in: Literaturszene Bundesrepublik-GIE in Blick von draußen, eds. Ferdinand van Ingen and Gerd Labroisse, (Amsterdamer Beiträge zur neueren Germanistik) 25/1988, 214.

51. Hans-Jürgen Schmitt, "Nachwort", in: Geschichten aus der DDR (Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, 1979), 247.

52. Emmerich, 447.

53. Emmerich. 449.

54. Chemo Jobatey, "Born in the DDR", in: Die Zeit. 31/29.7.88. 38. After the opening of the Berlin Wall and the German border numerous other rock groups, e.g. The Rolling Stones, performed to large audiences in the East.

55. Art exhibits have been funded by Gruner & Jahr. Salamander, Hoechst and BASF, among others. Eduard Bcaucamp. "Hemmungen: DDR-Kunst im Westen", in: Die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 164/18.7.88. 19; Ulrich Greiner, "Mercedes Amen. Sponsoring: über die Verflechtung von Wirtschaft und Kultur", in: Die Zeit. 27/1.7.88, 43.

56. Heiner Sylvester reports that many younger GDR authors whose works have not been published change to other media. Hcinar Sylvester. "Kuchcnkrümcl Kommunismus", in: Der Spiegel. 39/85. 238.

57. Jurek Becker, "Bücher.» Weg mil ihnen!", in: Die Zeit, 24/9.6.89. 60.

58. Becker, 60.

59. Hans Magnus Enzensberger, "Gemeinplätze, die neueste Literatur betreffend", in: Kursbuch 15, 1968.

60. See remarks on author-publisher relations by Günter Kunert and Monika Maron: "Der Dichter und sein liebster Feind. Eine ZEIT-Umfrage unter deutschsprachen Autoren über Verleger", in: Die Zeit, 21/19.5.89, 62.

61. Television programing and Videorecorders will have the greatest immediate impact. For a study of the function of the book in the media marketplace sec: Ulrich Saxer. "Das Buch in der Medienkonkurrenz", in: Lesen und Leben, cds. Herbert G. Göpfert, Ruth Meyer. Ludwig Muth, Walter Rücgg (Frankfurt/M.: Buchhändler-Vereinigung GmbH. 1975), 206-243.

62. Hanns Lothar Schütz, "Nicht mit unserer schnellen Gesellschaft da Teinbrcttcrn'", in: Bbl., 93/21.1 1.89. 3661.

63. Schütz, 3661-3662. See additional suggestions by Hans Altenhein. "Stimme der DDR", in: Bbl.. 90/10.1 1.89. 3591.

64. Schütz. 3661.

65. Ulrich Wechsler, "Go East oder Kapitalismus in der Kultur". in: Bbl., 42/25.5.1990. 1783.

66. Wechsler, 1783.

67. " F ü r s t e n h a u s strebt die Mehrheit bei 57 s ä c h s i s c h en Buchhandlungen an", in: 'Bbl.. 44/1.6.1990. 1817. See also: Hanns Lothar Schütz. "Verführung ins Trabi-Land", in: ßW.,44/1.6.1990. 1828-1833.

68. Hage. "Nach der Zensur". 13.

69. With regard to international literary reception in the United States, it seems that diverse forms of expression arc limited to reception within, or recognition by. subcultures (e.g. academic audiences, university students, intellectual communities, minorities). Popular reception of translations (bestsellers) occurs only when the work is effectively "uncoupled" from the original context of production and is largely determined by the foreign context. (Sec: Rectanus, German Literature in the United States)

70. See for example an interview with Sascha Anderson. "Die Generation nach uns ist freier", in: Der Spiegel. 36/86. 78.

71. In general the value of the author's image, and reader identification with his/her works, becomes more important as the author achieves an audience, readership or market. (The more well-known an author becomes, the more his/her name is used to promote a book.) This market could be relatively well-defined, as is the case for certain fiction genres (e.g. Westerns), or much larger and diffuse, in the case of bestsellers. In both cases, however, the author's image, and the perceived relationship of that image to his/her works, tends to become a commodity which overshadows other aspects. This seems to be the case for international bestselling authors as well as for authors who achieve a cult status within a market.

72. Emmerich, 468-470.

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