Physical activity (PA) is a widely accepted strategy to manage chronic diseases like type 1 diabetes; however, unique PA barriers likely result in lower PA levels among person(s) with type 1 diabetes (PWT1D), compared to person(s) without type 1 diabetes (PWOT1D). The integrated theory of health behavior change (ITHBC) (i.e., knowledge/beliefs, self-regulation, and self-management) provides a helpful framework for understanding PA and other health behaviors. This research aimed to determine differences in PA between adult PWT1D and PWOT1D, and characterize their PA-related behaviors using the ITHBC. Participants (N = 90; 86.7% female, 90% white) were recruited via social media and university listserv to complete an online questionnaire. Questions addressed demographics, anthropometrics, diabetes status, and PA-related behaviors. Participants were matched for race, gender, age, and body mass index. PA and related behaviors were compared between PWT1D and PWOT1D using independent samples t-tests and chi-square-tests. No significant differences were found between PWT1D and PWOT1D for weekly minutes of moderate- or vigorous-aerobic PA, or weekly days of muscle-strengthening PA (p > 0.05). Fifty-one percent of PWT1D and 53.3% of PWOT1D reported enough activity to meet PA guidelines. Almost twice as many PWT1D meeting PA guidelines reported using goal setting, a self-regulation behavior, compared to those who did not meet guidelines (82.6% versus 45.5%, p = 0.009). Targeting PA-related behaviors within ITHBC constructs may help reinforce or influence PA behaviors. These findings can inform future behavior change interventions with PWT1D that focus on educational practices for type 1 diabetes educators or healthcare providers for PWT1D so they can better aid patients.
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Beattie, Cassandra M.; Stein, Jesse A.; and Heinrich, Katie
"Physical Activity Behavior Comparisons Between Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes,"
Health Behavior Research: