turfgrass, thermal torch, herbicide-resistance management, annual bluegrass, Poa annua, glyphosate, glyphosate resistance
Handheld thermal torches could possibly become a tool to reduce glyphosate-resistant annual bluegrass populations. One month after treatment, 5- and 6-second handheld thermal heat treatments reduced annual bluegrass populations by 50 and 60%, respectively.
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Hoyle, J.; Reeves, J.; and Alderman, E.
"Use of a Handheld Thermal Torch as a Herbicide-Resistance Management Tool,"
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: