finisher, lysine requirement, phase-feeding, swine


The objective of this study was to compare phase feeding strategies for grow-finish pigs using the estimated lysine requirements for optimal growth and feed efficiency compared to a standard strategy. A total of 1,188 pigs (PIC 359 × 1050; initially 61.5 lb BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with 27 pigs per pen and 11 pens per treatment. The treatments consisted of: MAX, a 4-phase feeding program with lysine levels for maximum growth (1.13, 0.96, 0.82, and 0.77% SID Lys in Phases 1 to 4, respectively); STD, a standard 4-phase feeding program for optimal income over feed cost (1.02, 0.87, 0.76, and 0.67% SID Lys in Phases 1 to 4, respectively); STD/ MAX, a 4-phase feeding program based on standard lysine levels in early finishing and lysine levels for maximum growth in late finishing (1.02, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.77% SID Lys in Phases 1 to 4, respectively); and 2-PHASE, a 2-phase feeding program based on the average estimated lysine requirements for maximum growth with 0.96% SID lysine for Phases 1 to 3 and 0.77% SID lysine during Phase 4. The four phases were from approximately 60 to 110, 110 to 160, 160 to 220, and 220 to 280 lb, respectively. The experimental diets were based on corn, distillers dried grains with solubles, and soybean meal. Lysine levels were achieved by manipulating the ratio of corn to soybean meal. Overall, from d 0 to 117, pigs fed the 2-PHASE regimen had increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared to pigs fed the STD regimen, and feeding either the MAX or STD/MAX regimen resulted in intermediate ADG. There was no evidence for differences in ADFI, F/G, or final BW among dietary regimens. Also, no evidence for differences was observed across the dietary treatments for the carcass traits HCW, yield, backfat, loin depth, or lean percentage. For economics, the STD feeding program resulted in the lowest (P < 0.001) feed cost per pig and feed cost per lb of gain compared to the other 3 programs. Revenue and income over feed costs per pig were similar across the feeding programs. In conclusion, feeding lysine levels for maximum growth and efficiency in either a 2- or 4-phase feeding program results in the same growth performance and feed cost. A broad range of lysine specifications within the levels tested herein can be utilized in grow-finish diets without compromising income over feed cost.


Rights Statement

In Copyright - Educational Use Permitted.

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.